Jeremy Casson: Architectural Styles of Europe

Having developed a passion for fine art at an early age, Jeremy Casson attended one of the UK’s top art conservation courses while studying at university. Today, he runs his own practice mentoring other conservators.

Beautiful street in Greece with balconies and trees.

From the Greek and Roman classic era to post-modern architecture, this article will explore a selection of European architectural styles, providing an overview of their background and key features.

Greek and Roman

Classical Greek and Roman architecture is characterised by stone posts and beam-bearing columns, with a heavy emphasis on geometry and symmetry. However, while the Greeks favoured the more rudimentary Doric column, the Romans opted to incorporate intricate decorative flourishes and ornate archways.

Running from 900 BC to the 1st century and 590 BC to the 4th century respectively, the ancient Greek and Roman architectural eras overlapped considerably, with their classic influences re-emerging time and time again in subsequent architectural styles.

Greek architecture Roman ruins and columns in Greece.


Adding to the Romans’ use of columns and arches with impressive domed ceilings and basilica structures, the Byzantine architectural phase continued for a thousand years, running from the 4th century to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453.

Originating from the imperial capital of Constantinople, this architectural style emphasised interior decoration over exteriors, frequently incorporating gold detailing and tile mosaics.

Byzantine architecture in Europe.


As the name would suggest, neoclassical architecture harks back to Greek and Roman architectural styles, with many 18th century structures somewhat resembling ancient Greek and Roman temples. With a focus on free-standing columns, elegant lines and an uncluttered appearance, buildings from this era tend to be vast, with prime examples including the White House in Washington D.C. and the Bank of England Building in Liverpool.

Neoclassical architecture in Europe, extravagant moldings on balcony.


Constructed during the reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, this architectural style is not limited to a particular design and incorporates elements of the Tudor, Romanesque and Gothic eras.

Millions of Victorian buildings still survive throughout the UK today, with the style having been adopted in the construction of residential homes throughout the industrial revolution. Victorian houses are characterised by a typical ‘dolls house’ appearance, incorporating vivid colours, elaborate trims and asymmetrical designs.

Victorian architecture in England.


Popular with many architects in the first half of the 20th century, this minimalist style prioritises the simplicity of form, with a clean structure, focus on functionality and distinct lack of ornamentation. The modern style took advantage of advancements in steel, concrete and glass and was embraced by some of the world’s best-known architects, including Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.

Modern architecture concrete office building.


Launched in the 1960s, the post-modern design movement bucked the trend of rigidity and austerity promoted throughout the modern era, incorporating decorative embellishments and artistic elements. Post-modernism drew inspiration from a mix of architectural eras, culminating in a new generation of whimsical, hybrid creations.

Prime examples of the post-modern architectural era include the Dancing House in Prague and the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

Post modern architecture, the dancing house in Prague.


Treasures from Murano: The magic world of Murano glass Mirrors

These beautiful Murano glass mirrors are made in Italy and they are to die for! Keep reading to learn more about these magical mirrors from Murano!

Beautiful glass mirror made in murano italy hand crafted gold guilded.

Imagine stepping into a world of elegance and style where every glance reveals a touch of sophistication. This world is crafted with Murano glass mirrors, each with the power to transform your living spaces into enchanting realms of beauty and charm. Among these mirrors, you’ll find classic glass mirrors, bathroom mirrors, entrance mirrors, luxury mirrors, rectangular mirrors, round mirrors, and wall mirrors. They are more than mere reflective surfaces; they are gateways to a new dimension in interior decor. Classic glass mirrors are your timeless companions, offering an eternal charm that seamlessly fits into any decor. With their clean lines and crystalline glass, they bring a sense of space and luminosity, becoming the centrepieces of living rooms or the elegant secrets of bedrooms.

Bathroom mirrors are where functionality meets beauty. They are more than mere tools for your daily routine; they are captivating decor elements. Their elegant designs and illuminated versions can enhance the overall look of your bathroom, amplifying its allure. Entrance mirrors set the stage for a grand entrance. They welcome your guests with a touch of style and charm. Round mirrors, adorned with decorative frames or unique designs, take the spotlight in this space, expressing warmth and openness.

Glass hand crafted mirror from murano italy.

Luxury mirrors are not just mirrors; they are works of art. These sumptuous creations are adorned with ornate frames made of materials like gold leaf, silver, or exquisite woodwork. They are about grandeur, opulence, and making a bold statement in any room. Rectangular mirrors are the epitome of clean lines and versatility. These elegant mirrors are perfect for adding a touch of sophistication to bedrooms, dining rooms, or hallways. They offer a sense of spaciousness and add an aura of elegance wherever they are placed.

Round mirrors, with their soft curves and graceful designs, invite warmth and charm into your decor. They create an inviting and relaxing atmosphere, particularly in bedrooms and bathrooms. Placed above a dresser or bedside table, they contribute to a feeling of elegance and balance. Wall mirrors are your artistic statements, blank canvases for your creativity. Whether individually or in carefully curated groups, they add depth and personality to your space. With decorative frames or unique mirror shapes, they allow you to express your style, bringing life to your walls.

Hand crafted glass mirror from murano italy with gold guilding.

And let’s not forget the myriad of other exquisite Murano glass pieces that further enhance the design of your home. Murano glass chandeliers, sculptures, vases, and glassware add an extra layer of elegance to your interior decor. These handcrafted pieces are unique works of art that tell stories of Murano’s rich history and tradition. They infuse any room with a sense of opulence and sophistication, making your home truly exceptional.

Gold guilded mirror made from glass from murano italy.

In conclusion, these Murano glass mirrors and other exquisite pieces are more than mere objects; they are gateways to a world of elegance and style. Classic glass mirrors, bathroom mirrors, entrance mirrors, luxury mirrors, rectangular mirrors, round mirrors, and wall mirrors each have a unique story to tell in your home decor. Additionally, the enchanting beauty of Murano glass chandeliers, sculptures, vases, and glassware elevates your living spaces to a new level of elegance and artistry. Together, these pieces serve practical functions while weaving an intricate tapestry of elegance, style, and depth into all your living spaces. Mirrors not only reflect the surrounding environment; they reflect your unique style, and the other glass pieces transform your home into a masterpiece of beauty and charm.


The Steinbridge Group: Building a New Real Estate Investment Model

Thinking about investing in real estate? Keep reading these tips from the pros!

The Steinbridge Group is a leading real estate investment and asset management company with offices in Philadelphia and New York that acquires, develops and repositions residential and mixed-use properties across transitioning submarkets of America’s growing metros.

The Steinbridge Group prides itself on creating and operating under a new real estate investment model, recognizing the need for single-family housing in gentrifying communities.

Tawan Davis is the Steinbridge Group’s CEO. A seasoned expert in American real estate who earned his MBA in 2006, Tawan Davis was just 15 years old when he first recognized a problem prevalent in many American cities.

Having grown up in Portland, Oregon, Tawan Davis recalls a conversation with his grandmother, when he asked her why everyone else had money and they didn’t. To put this in context, Portland is one of America’s most rapidly gentrifying cities today. Tawan Davis says that ever since, he has been trying to understand the economic gaps in the United States and why large groups of people are systemically financially underprivileged.

Realizing that the answer lies in a lack of access to real estate, Tawan Davis is leading the Steinbridge Group on a mission to invest in single-family homes in gentrifying communities, rebuilding them to a high standard and then offering them to working-class residents at attainable rents. Mr Davis points out that his approach is not only a good investment opportunity but is also in the public good.

Across the United States today, there are around 133 million housing units, 84 million of which are single-family homes. Of those, around 22 million are available to rent, mostly via individual landlords or couples. Many of these private landlords feel under economic pressure themselves, in a rapidly gentrifying community with taxes and costs on the rise.

As Tawan Davis explains, just 2% of these properties are owned by institutional investors, and most of these homes are located in suburban communities. Combined with the fact that more Americans are renting now than at any point in the last 50 years, it was clear to Tawan Davis that there was a market opportunity.

The Steinbridge Group works in a very different way from many real estate investment companies. While an obvious strategy might be to target states with large suburban populations and legislation enabling companies to buy foreclosed properties in bulk, this did not appeal to the Steinbridge Group. A popular investment route among smaller developers is flipping houses, i.e. buying, renovating, and selling homes quickly to make a tidy profit, further inflating house prices in the process. The Steinbridge Group opted against that too.

Instead, the Steinbridge Group devised a long-term plan to invest in rebuilding and maintaining rental properties throughout major East Coast cities. Under Tawan Davis’s stewardship, the company ensures that people who work in and around cities, including teachers, firefighters, and postal workers, can live there, despite falling within a demographic most affected by increasing housing prices. The Steinbridge Group operates with an emphasis on providing working-class families with a quality product, buying houses one-by-one, rebuilding them, and then renting out these high-quality, single-family homes for between $900 and $1,400 per month.

The company’s single-family investment program will see $500 million invested in transitioning urban markets, paving the way for the creation of more than 3,000 homes in major metros across the United States. The Steinbridge Group’s solution to the acute shortage in attainable rental properties is to create more opportunities to enable working-class families to remain in their communities. The Steinbridge Group aims to drive positive economic change at a local level without causing working-class families, many of whom have lived in the community for generations, to be displaced.

Under the leadership of Tawan Davis, the Steinbridge Group focuses on redeveloping single-family homes located in momentum submarkets of growing cities across the United States. After purchasing and rebuilding these properties to a high-quality standard, the company rents them to working-class families at sustainable rents.


Seamless Integration: Plumbing Considerations for Your Kitchen Remodel

Are you renovating your kitchen? Here are some things you should consider regarding your kitchen plumbing!

Embarking on a kitchen remodel is an exciting endeavor, promising to rejuvenate the heart of your home and enhance its functionality. Amidst the flurry of design choices and material selections, it’s crucial not to overlook one of the most essential aspects of a kitchen – plumbing. A successful kitchen remodel isn’t just about aesthetics; it’s about creating a seamless integration of form and function. Here, we’ll guide you through the crucial plumbing considerations to ensure a harmonious and efficient kitchen space, making your remodeling journey truly rewarding.

Layout and Design: The Blueprint of Efficiency

As you envision your dream kitchen, the layout becomes the blueprint of your cooking haven. The placement of sinks, dishwashers, and appliances directly impacts the plumbing framework. A well-thought-out design should prioritize proximity to existing plumbing lines, minimizing the need for extensive pipe rerouting. While it’s tempting to entirely overhaul the layout, adhering to the existing plumbing infrastructure can save you both time and money.

Sink Selection: The Heart of Culinary Activities

The sink is a focal point of daily kitchen activities, from meal preparation to dishwashing. When choosing a sink, consider size, material, and depth. Deeper sinks can accommodate larger pots and pans but may require a different plumbing setup. Ensure the sink’s location aligns with existing plumbing lines to avoid costly reconfigurations.

Faucet Functionality: Balancing Style and Utility

Your faucet is more than just a water source – it’s an aesthetic statement and a functional tool. Selecting a faucet that complements your kitchen’s style is essential, but don’t overlook practicality. Different faucets require distinct plumbing setups, so choose one that seamlessly integrates with your existing plumbing configuration. Consider features like pull-out sprayers and touchless technology for added convenience.

Dishwasher Placement: Streamlining Cleanup

The dishwasher has revolutionized kitchen cleanup, making it an integral part of modern kitchen design. When integrating a dishwasher into your remodel, ensure it’s positioned within reach of existing water and drainage lines. Relocating a dishwasher may involve extensive plumbing modifications, so strategic placement is critical to maintaining a seamless flow in your kitchen.

Refrigerator with Ice and Water Dispensers: Quenching Your Thirst

A refrigerator with ice and water dispensers brings convenience to your kitchen routine. However, this feature requires a dedicated water supply line. If your remodel involves relocating your refrigerator, ensure the new placement allows easy connection to a water source. Consider the space needed for the water line, and plan accordingly.

Gas vs. Electric: Cooking Method and Plumbing Compatibility

Your choice of cooking appliances – gas or electric – influences your culinary prowess and impacts plumbing considerations. Gas ranges require a gas supply line, while electric stoves demand a dedicated electrical circuit. If you’re switching from one to the other, consult a professional to ensure that your kitchen’s plumbing and electrical systems can accommodate the change seamlessly.

Island Oasis: Plumbing in the Center of Your Kitchen

A kitchen island adds both workspace and a social hub to your culinary haven. If your remodel involves incorporating an island, consider plumbing requirements. Plumbing a sink or dishwasher on the island necessitates extending water and drainage lines, which could impact your budget and timeline. Plan and work with a professional to ensure hassle-free integration.

Waste Management: Garbage Disposal Considerations

A garbage disposal unit can significantly simplify your kitchen cleanup routine. However, installing or upgrading garbage disposal requires careful plumbing consideration. Ensure your kitchen’s plumbing system can handle the increased load, and consult a professional to determine the appropriate size and installation process for your disposal unit.


In the kitchen makeover dance, plumbing’s the unsung hero, keeping things flowing smoothly. Redoing your kitchen? Consider sink placement, faucet function, and appliance spots – they’re the backstage moves that turn your kitchen into a superstar. No need to be a plumbing pro yourself – bring in an expert to conduct the renovation orchestra. With their know-how and your vision, you’ll whip up meals in a functional masterpiece. Your kitchen remix will rock for years, making meal prep feel like a delightful tune.


Unconventional Ways to Infuse Wedding Flowers into Your Home

In today’s fast-paced world, finding solace in nature has become increasingly important. Home décor enthusiasts are continuously seeking innovative ways to bring the beauty of the outdoors inside, creating spaces that evoke a sense of tranquillity and connection with the natural world!

One emerging trend that embodies this desire is the use of wedding flowers in home decoration. Sola wood flowers, crafted from tapioca plant stems, offer a sustainable and versatile alternative to fresh or artificial flowers. What makes them truly remarkable is their ability to add a touch of elegance, whimsy, and creativity to any living space. While incorporating sola wood flowers into your home décor may seem unconventional at first, the results are nothing short of breathtaking.

In this article, we will explore a myriad of inspiring ideas that showcase the unique ways sola wood flowers can be incorporated into your home. From enchanting floral chandeliers that illuminate your dining area to floral curtains that divide your space with natural beauty, these suggestions will transform your living environment into an oasis of serenity.

Discover how sola wood flowers can become captivating wall art, adding texture and dimension to your favorite rooms. Unleash your creativity by arranging these flowers on bookshelves, creating stunning wreaths, or even adorning your staircase with an unexpected burst of color. Additionally, we will explore how wooden flowers can be used to bring life to lanterns, mobiles, and fireplace displays.

Embrace the beauty of sola wood flowers and let nature’s elegance become an integral part of your home décor. Let’s embark on a journey of imagination and creativity, exploring the limitless possibilities that these enchanting flowers offer. Get ready to infuse your living space with a touch of nature’s splendor that will captivate your senses and leave guests in awe.

Hanging Flower Chandelier

Create a stunning and unexpected centerpiece by hanging a chandelier made entirely of sola wood flowers. Use an assortment of colorful flowers and hang it above your dining table or in the living room to create a conversation-starting focal point.

Flower Wall Art

Design a unique and eye-catching wall art installation using sola wood flowers. Arrange the flowers in a pattern or create a three-dimensional effect by layering them. Paint the flowers in bold, unconventional colors for an even more disruptive look.

Floral Curtain Room Divider

Instead of using traditional curtains or dividers, hang strings of sola wood flowers to separate different areas of a room. This unconventional approach adds a touch of whimsy and natural beauty to your space while serving a practical purpose.

Bookshelf Overflowing with Flowers

Infuse your bookshelf with a burst of vibrant hues and varied textures by incorporating sola wood flowers. Scatter the flowers amidst the books or utilize them to craft petite floral arrangements on different shelves. This unexpected fusion will undoubtedly make your bookshelf a standout feature.

Floral Canopy Suspension

Metamorphose your ceiling into a genuine work of art by installing a suspended assemblage of sola wood flowers. Gracefully drape vines and blossoms across the expanse of the ceiling to fashion a natural and visually arresting effect that is sure to astonish your guests.

Sola Wood Blossom Wreaths

Break free from conventional wreath materials and fashion unconventional wreaths using sola wood flowers. Hang them on your front door, above the fireplace, or even employ them as an extraordinary centerpiece on your dining table.

Blossoming Staircase

Decorate your staircase with sola wood flowers for a disruptive and visually enchanting effect. Affix the flowers along the handrails or expertly weave them into the balusters. This unexpected embellishment will impart a whimsical touch to your home.

Lanterns Overflowing with Flowers

Fill lanterns with a delightful arrangement of trendy sola wood flowers and place them on your porch, patio, or even indoors. The combination of gentle, radiant light and vivid flowers engenders a mesmerizing and unforeseen ambiance.

Floral Suspension

Craft a striking floral suspension using sola wood flowers and suspend it in a nursery, bedroom, or any other area within your home. The floating flowers will infuse a whimsical touch and create a visually disruptive element within the space.

Fireplace Overflowing with Flowers

If you possess a non-functional fireplace, fill it with an assortment of sola wood flowers. Arrange them in a manner that mimics the flickering flames, generating a surprising and captivating focal point in your living room.

Incorporating sola wood flowers into the realm of your home décor transcends mere design choices; it represents a reconnection with nature and the creation of a space that reflects your individuality. So, venture forth and embrace the splendor of sola wood flowers, and witness the transformation of your home into a sanctuary of natural elegance and artistic expression.

Be it a flower-filled chandelier suspended above your dining table, a striking mobile adorning a nursery, or the transformation of your bookshelf into a floral masterpiece, sola wood flowers provoke conversation, inspire creativity, and disrupt the conventional perceptions of home décor.

These versatile flowers even lend themselves to unforeseen locations such as lanterns and non-functioning fireplaces, offering an unexpected twist that captivates and mesmerizes. Each arrangement becomes a testament to your unique style and a celebration of nature’s marvels.

So, unleash your imagination, blend and merge ideas, and transform your home into a canvas that showcases nature’s grandeur. With sola wood flowers, you possess the ability to create an environment that not only pleases the eye but also nurtures the soul!